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0X (ZRX): 0x (ZRX) is a protocol that allows for decentralized exchange of tokens and assets issued on the Ethereum blockchain. Developers can use 0x to create their own applications for cryptocurrency exchange with a wide range of functions, for example, the ability to conduct over-the-counter trading of tokens issued on the Ethereum blockchain. Token 0x (ZRX) is used makers and takurami to transfer commissions to release. The ZRX tokens are also used to implement a decentralized management of the 0x protocol update mechanism, which allows for the replacement and improvement of the underlying smart contracts.
51% ATTACK: A 51% attack is a situation where more than half of the computing power on a network is operated by a single individual or concentrated group, which gives them complete and total control over a network. Things that an entity with 51% of the computing power can do include, but are not limited to: Halting all mining, halting and manipulating all interpersonal transactions and to use singular coins over and over.
ADDRESS: A bitcoin address is essentially the same thing as your home address. It’s the location from which you would receive, send or hold your currency. These addresses generally manifest in a long string of alphanumeric characters
AETERNITY (AE): Aeternity is an open-source decentralized apps platform utilizing next generation, highly scalable, public blockchain technology. Its off-chain smart contracts use real-world and real-time data by interacting with built-in oracles. Aeternity coin is envisioned to be an open-source, distributed computing platform that builds upon public blockchain technology. æternity’s primary goals are to deliver unmatched efficiency, transparent governance, and global scalability. Its decentralized consensus mechanism is being developed considering cost-efficiency.
AGREEMENT LEDGER: An agreement ledger is distributed ledger used by two or more parties to negotiate and reach agreement.
ALPHABET: The alphabet is the set of characters which will be affected by the encryption process. This is usually the set of 26 letters, but could also be enlarged to contain punctuation and numbers to make a cipher more secure.
ALTCOIN: A cryptocurrency or a category of cryptocurrencies that are an alternative to bitcoin. Many altcoins project themselves as better alternatives to bitcoin in various ways (e.g. more efficient, less expensive, etc.).
AML: Acronym for ‘Anti-Money Laundry’, used to describe a series of laws and regulations which require financial institutions to know the identity of their customers and prevent malicious activities, as well as verify the origin of the funds used.
ASIC: Application Specific Integrated Circuit is a chip specifically created to execute one task. GPU or CPU can be considered ASIC. ASIC term grew in popularity with bitcoin mining.
ASIC/ASIC MINER: ASIC mining is a crafty method of mining various coins at a much faster rate than any normal desktop or laptop might allow.
ASYMMETRIC KEY ALGORITHM: This is the algorithm used to generate public and private keys, the unique codes that are essential to cryptocurrency transactions. Both parties have access to the public key, but only the person with the private key can decode the encryption; this assures that only they can receive the funds.
ATTESTATION LEDGER: A distributed ledger providing a durable record of agreements, commitments or statements, providing evidence (attestation) that these agreements, commitments or statements were made.
AUGUR (REP): Augur is an open-source, decentralized, peer-to-peer prediction market platform built on Ethereum. People trading on Augur are rewarded if they bet on the right outcomes. The idea is to use markets in order to predict outcomes. The feature of Augur is tradable tokens called “Reputation” Augur (REP). The total amount of reputation is fixed at 11 million coins when it was launched in August 2015.
AURORA (AOA): Aurora is a smart contract platform that plans on applying the DPOS+BFT consensus mechanism to provide for lighting speed contracts to facilitate fast-linked operations. The platform intends to give a blockchain ecosystem that would promote a high TPS structure with the added security option.
BASIC ATTENTION TOKEN (BAT): Basic Attention Token (BAT) is a blockchain-based advertising system, that aims to change how ads are served. It is built on top of the Ethereum blockchain and uses a browser called Brave. Brave is an open-source, privacy-centered browser designed to block trackers and malware. Brave utilizes blockchain technology to anonymously and securely track user attention. The objective of Basic Attention Token is to display fewer ads users and at the same time improve the content that they see. The ICO of Basic Attention Token (BAT) started in May 2017.
BEAR TRAP: This is a manipulation of a stock or commodity by investors. Traders who “set” the bear trap do so by selling stock until it fools other investors into thinking its upward trend in value has stopped, or is dropping. Those who fall into the bear trap will often sell at that time, fearing a further drop in value. At that point, the investors who set the trap will buy at the low price and will release the trap—which is essentially a false bear market. Once the bear trap is released, the value will even out, or even climb.
BITCOIN: A digital, or crypto, currency that enables payment in a decentralized peer-to-peer (P2P) network not governed by any central authority or middleman.
BITCOIN CASH (BCH): An alt-coin clone of bitcoin that was created in August 2017 when a group of Chinese miners initiated a hard fork of bitcoin’s blockchain.
BITCOIN DIAMOND (BCD): Bitcoin Diamond is a hard fork of the cryptocurrency Bitcoin. The fork occurred in November 2017, on block 495866. The difference between Bitcoin and Bitcoin Diamond is that they multiplied the supply by 10, meaning that if you had 1 BTC before block 495866, you received 10 BCD. The code appears to be very similar to the Bitcoin Core code. The developers remain anonymous.
BITCOIN GOLD (BTG): Bitcoin Gold (BTG) is a hardfork of the cryptocurrency Bitcoin. The fork occurred in late October 2017, on block 491407. The purpose of the fork is to create an ASIC resistant Bitcoin, by reusing Equihash proof-of-work algorithm from Zcash. The token debuted at №5 on Coinmarketcap.
BITCOIN PRICE INDEX (BPI): Gathers information from the largest and most influential Bitcoin exchanges in the world, and applies the aggregated statistics to reach a more balanced and realistic picture of the currency’s market value. The BPI has a set of criteria—best practices guidelines for the exchange industry, if you will—and exchanges that don’t meet or accept these criteria aren’t included in the BPI statistics.
BITCOIN SV (BSV): Bitcoin SV is a new full-node implementation for Bitcoin Cash (BCH). Reflecting its mission to fulfill the vision of Bitcoin, the project name represents the “Satoshi Vision” or SV. Created at the request of leading BCH mining enterprise CoinGeek and other miners, Bitcoin SV is intended to provide a clear BCH implementation choice for miners and allow businesses to build applications and websites on it reliably.
BITFINEX: Founded in 2012, Bitfinex is one of the oldest trading platform for Bitcoin and other crypto-assets with many advanced features including margin trading, exchange and liquidity swaps. The exchange is owned and operated by iFinex Inc. which is headquartered in Hong Kong and registered in the British Virgin Islands.
Fascinated by Bitcoin and the new possibilities it gives to people, the Bitfinex team has gathered experts from financial markets, programming and system administration to develop a versatile one-stop platform to make transfers, trade and a growing host of other services.
In 2015 the exchange’s customers were hacked, losing about $400,000, and in 2016 about $73 million more was stolen from its customers’ accounts. The exchange’s access to U.S. dollar payments and withdrawals has been curtailed.
BITSHARES (BTS): BitShares is an open-source, public, blockchain-based real-time financial platform. It provides a built-in decentralized asset exchange, similar to New York Stock Exchange but for cryptocurrencies and without the need to trust a central authority to handle all the funds, that can execute trading using an international network of computers in which anyone can take part. BitShares also provides a cryptocurrency token called “BTS”, which can be transferred between accounts and is used to collect fees for network operations and as a collateral for loans. This platform was designed by American programmer and entrepreneur Dan Larimar, and launched in July 2014. Since March 2016 the project is a part of Microsoft Azure Blockchain as a Service package.
BLOCK: Blocks are essentially pages in a ledger or record keeping book. Blocks are the files where unalterable data related to the network is permanently stored.
BLOCK EXPLORER: Online tool to view all transactions, past and current, on the blockchain. They provide useful information such as network hash rate and transaction growth. BLOCK HEIGHT: Block height is the number of blocks preceding the genesis block (first block) on the chain. A genesis block will always have a height of zero because nothing precedes it. It’s a metric used to create a bearing on time in the programming world as well as a few other functions such as maintaining counter-party and betting in the crypto world.
BLOCK REWARD: Block reward is the reward allotted for hashing, or solving the mathematical equation related to a block. The reward for mining a Bitcoin block is 25 bitcoins per block mined, which will halve every 210,000 blocks.
BLOCKCHAIN: Software that first emerged as the system underpinning bitcoin. Also known as distributed ledger technology (DLT), it is a shared record of information that is maintained and updated by a network of computers rather than a central authority. It is protected and secured by advanced cryptography.
BOT TRADING: The majority of investors in digital currency use manual methods when they want to buy or sell their cryptocurrency of choice. However, there are now programs available for investors that have been created to make the process more precise and automatic. They download these programs, which monitor alternative currency exchanges and markets for them. These “bots” will carry out transactions automatically according to the price criteria the investor has set.
BREAK: To break a code is to work out what the original message of an intercepted text is. This is done using a variety of ways and a large amount of human input is required.
BUBBLE: A bubble occurs when a market is driven upward by investors; this has happened in the dot-com and housing industries in the past decade or so. Factors such as industry popularity, speculation of potential worth, political influence, and many other things can combine to create these spikes in value. If the market is perceived to have “topped out,” or investors believe it will no longer retain its overall worth, the bubble can “burst.” This represents a massive sell-off by investors, which can make market value drop sharply.
BULL TRAP: A bull trap is “set” by investors in a stock or commodity who will buy large amounts in order to artificially drive the value upward, or create a false bull market. Traders who are fooled by the bull trap will often buy shares at the inflated price, in the belief that the upward trend will continue and the shares they’re buying will rise in value.
BUY ORDER: A buy order is established when an investor approaches an exchange and wants to purchase cryptocurrency.
BYTECOIN (BCN): First CryptoNote based cryptocurrency launched in July 2012. CryptoNote technology provides absolute anonymity to Bytecoin using Ring Signatures and one-time addresses. This type of anonymous transactions make it almost impossible to find out the sender/receiver address. Currently Bytecoin developers are the most active ones so the CryptoNote cause still prospers.
BYTOM (BTM): Bytom coin is a cryptocurrency that is designed to be the public blockchain specifically for the area of asset management. The objective of Bytom is to bridge the digital world and the physical world, and to build a decentralized network where various digital and physical assets can be registered and exchanged. Bytom is a protocol of multiple byte assets. Heterogeneous byte-assets operate in different forms on the Bytom Blockchain and atomic assets (warrants, securities, dividends, bonds, intelligence information, forecasting information and other information that exist in the physical world) can be registered, exchanged, gambled via Bytom.
CARDANO (ADA): Decentralised public blockchain and cryptocurrency project and is fully open source. Cardano is developing a smart contract platform which seeks to deliver more advanced features than any protocol previously developed. It is the first blockchain platform to evolve out of a scientific philosophy and a research-first driven approach. The development team consists of a large global collective of expert engineers and researchers.
CENTRAL LEDGER: A ledger maintained by a central agency.
CHAINLINK (LINK): ChainLink is a decentralized blockchain oracles service. The digital currency of ChainLink has facilitated the use of contracts that connect to applications, payment systems, transactions. This technology allows users to exchange assets without the involvement of third parties.
CIRCULATING SUPPLY: An approximation of the number of coins or tokens that are circulating in the public market. See also: total supply and maximum supply.
COINBASE: an online platform that allows merchants, consumers, and traders to transact with digital currency. It allows its users to create their own bitcoin wallets and start buying or selling bitcoins by connecting with their bank accounts. In addition, it provides a series of merchant payment processing systems and tools that support many highly-trafficked websites on the internet.
Coinbase was launched in 2012 with a mission to create an open financial system for the world. It is operated from San Francisco, California. The company raised over $100M in funding from world’s leading investors including DFJ Growth, Andreessen Horowitz, Union Square Ventures, Ribbit Capital and NYSE.
COLD STORAGE: The term cold storage is a general term for different ways of securing your bitcoins offline (disconnected from the internet). This would be the opposite of a hot wallet or hosted wallet, which is connected to the web for day-to-day transactions. The purpose of using cold storage is to minimize the chances of your bitcoins being stolen from a malicious hacker and is commonly used for larger sums of bitcoins.
COLLECTIVE MINING: The commitment of resources and materials to the process of mining digital currency data blocks often proves to be too expensive for individuals to take part.
CONFIRMATION: The successful act of hashing a transaction and adding it to the blockchain.
CONSENSUS: Consensus is achieved when all participants of the network agree on the validity of the transactions, ensuring that the ledgers are exact copies of each other.
CRYPTOCURRENCY: A digital currency that relies on cryptography to validate and secure transactions. There are different types of cryptocurrencies. Bitcoin and ethereum are among the best known.
CRYPTOGRAPHIC HASH FUNCTION: Cryptographic hashes produce a fixed-size and unique hash value from variable-size transaction input. The SHA-256 computational algorithm is an example of a cryptographic hash.
CRYPTOGRAPHY: Essentially mathematical and computer science algorithms used to encrypt and decrypt information, is used in bitcoin addresses, hash functions, and the block chain.
CRYPTONEX (CNX): Cryptonex (CNX) is a global, decentralized cryptocurrency created on its own blockchain. It is the world’s first blockchain acquiring. The main goal is to offer an opportunity to exchange any world currencies for cryptocurrencies and tokens, to buy goods and services using payment cards and mobile applications with contactless payments instantly and with minimum commission. Cryptonex main feature is P-o-S mining, 12% per annum. It’s enough to buy CNX, transfer into any desktop wallet, and keep it online as far as possible. Due to P-o-S scheme use, the transactions are safe and take only a couple of seconds.
DAI (DAI): Dai is a cryptocurrency that automatically reacts to emergent market conditions in order to stabilize its value against the major world currencies. Dai is created by the Dai Stablecoin System, a decentralized platform that runs on the Ethereum blockchain.
DAO: Decentralised Autonomous Organizations can be thought of as corporations that run without any human intervention and surrender all forms of control to an incorruptible set of business rules.
DAPP: Decentralised application (Dapp) is an application that is open source, operates autonomously, has its data stored on a blockchain, incentivised in the form of cryptographic tokens and operates on a protocol that shows proof of value.
DASH (DASH): A type of cryptocurrency based on Bitcoin software but has anonymity features that makes it impossible to trace transactions to an individual and other capabilities. It was created by Evan Duffield in 2014 and was previously known as XCoin (XCO) and Darkcoin.
DECENTRALAND (MANA): Decentraland is a virtual reality world where users can buy and build on parcels of land. Property contents range from static 3D scenes to dynamic applications. A property owner can host other users on her land and determine how the world interacts with them. ICO start date: 2017-08-18.
DECRED (DCR): Decred (DCR) is an open-source, community-based cryptocurrency, similar to Bitcoin. Decred was launched in February 2016 by the bitcoin developers that engineered btcsuite, an alternative full-node Bitcoin implementation written in the Go (golang) programming language and is used by development projects such as Ethereum, Factom, BitGo, OpenBazaar, and the Lightning Network.
DIFFICULTY: This refers to how easily a data block of transaction information can be mined successfully.
DIGIBYTE (DGB): Open-source cryptocurrency running on the DigiByte Blockchain, a decentralised international blockchain created in 2013. The DigiByte coin was developed in 2013 and released in January 2014. Although based on Bitcoin, adjustments in the code allow for improved functionality, including 15-second block time and improved security. As of July 2018 DigiByte has a total market cap of over US $500 million. It is the world’s longest, fastest and most secure UTXO blockchain in existence.
DIGITAL SIGNATURE: A digital code generated by public key encryption that is attached to an electronically transmitted document to verify its contents and the sender’s identity.
DIGITAL WALLET: Software that allows users to make electronic payments, purchases and store their cryptocurrencies online.
DISTRIBUTED APPLICATION: Software that runs on multiple computers on a given network at the same time.
DISTRIBUTED CONSENSUS: Collective agreement by various computers in a network and allows it to work in a decentralized, P2P manner without the need of central authority to deter dishonest network participants.
DISTRIBUTED LEDGER TECHNOLOGY: A term often used interchangeably with “blockchain,” although technically blockchain describes the public ledger powering bitcoin.
DOGECOIN (DOGE): A cryptocurrency featuring a Shiba Inu dog from the famous “Doge” internet meme. Launched as a joke, this is one of the top altcoins.
DOUBLE SPEND: A successful bitcoin transaction that is sent to two different recipients simultaneously. It’s essentially as if the same dollar bill could be spent twice. Bitcoin’s blockchain is the system that should prevent this from happening.
EOS: EOS.IO is an Operating System on which scalable Decentralized Autonomous Communities “DACs” can easily be built, launched, and governed. Made possible through asynchronous smart contract communication, EOS.IO is designed to empower communities to create the next era of disruptive organizations.
ERC-20: A type of token standard for Ethereum which ensures the tokens perform in a predictable way. This allows the tokens to be easily exchangeable and able to work immediately with decentralized applications that also use the ERC-20 standard. Most tokens released through ICOsare compliant with the ERC-20 standard.
ETHER (ETH): A type of cryptocurrency that is used for operating the Ethereum platform and is used to pay for transaction fees and computational tasks. In the platform, transaction fees are measured based on the gas limit and gas price and ultimately paid for in Ether.
ETHEREUM: A type of blockchain network. The bitcoin and Ethereum blockchains differ primarily in purpose and capability. While the bitcoin blockchain is used to track ownership of the digital currency bitcoin, the Ethereum blockchain can be used to build decentralized applications.
ETHEREUM CLASSIC (ETC): A type of cryptocurrency that is a continuation of the original Ethereum blockchain following the DAO attack in June 2016. Ethereum is essentially a hard fork of the blockchain that was formed to refund the money that was siphoned during the attack (around $50 million). Ethereum Classic assumes no hard fork occurred and is supported by those who believe in complete immutability of the blockchain.
EVM: The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a Turing complete virtual machine that allows anyone to execute arbitrary EVM Byte Code. Every Ethereum node runs on the EVM to maintain consensus across the blockchain.
FACTOM (FCT): Factom is a blockchain technology company based in Austin, Texas. The company was founded in 2014 by Paul Snow and David Johnston as a blockchain as a service company, using blockchain for data management and security. Its customers include the United States Department of Homeland Security, and the company previously anchored Project Gutenberg. Factom (FCT) is a cryptocurrency for internal use on the Factom platform, which is based on blockchain technology and consists of blocks of encrypted information. The Factom project was launched in 2015, the purpose of which was to increase the standard block size in the blockchain system – 1 MB. In 2015, the developers of Fantom realized that such a small block size can become a problem.
FIAT MONEY: Refers to currencies that have minimal or no intrinsic value themselves (i.e. they are not backed by commodities like gold or silver) but are defined as legal tender by the government, such as paper bills and coins. For example, USD can be considered a fiat currency and there aren’t any real currencies with their value measured in gold.
FLIPPING: A type of investment strategy (popular in real estate investing) where you buy something with the goal of reselling for a profit later, usually in a short period of time. In the context of ICOs, flipping refers to the strategy of investing in tokens before they are listed on the exchanges and reselling them for a profit when they are trading in the secondary market.
FOMO: An acronym that stands for ‘fear of missing out’ and in the context of investing, refers to the feeling of apprehension for missing out on a potentially profitable investment opportunity and regretting it later.
FRAUD PROOF: A set of data, usually a part of a block plus some extra ‘witness data’ (eg. Merkle branches), that can be used to prove that a given block is invalid.
FULL NODE: A full node is when you download the entire block chain using a bitcoin client, and you relay, validate, and secure the data within the block chain. The data is bitcoin transactions and blocks, which is validated across the entire network of users.
FORK: The permanent divergence of an alternative operating version of the current blockchain. Forks come into existence when a 51% attack occurs, a bug in the program, or more commonly a new set of consensus rules come into existence. These happen when a development team creates and inserts notably substantial changes into the system. The successful fork is decided by the height of their blocks.
FUD: An acronym that stands for fear, uncertainty and doubt. It is a strategy to influence perception by spreading negative, misleading or false information about something, as opposed to reasoned criticism.
GAS: Measurement roughly equivalent to computational steps (for Ethereum). Every transaction is required to include a gas limit and a fee that it is willing to pay per gas; miners have the choice of including the transaction and collecting the fee or not. Every operation has a gas expenditure; for most operations it is ~3–10, although some expensive operations have expenditures up to 700 and a transaction itself has an expenditure of 21000.
GAS LIMIT: A term used in the Ethereum platform that refers to the maximum amount of units of gas the user is willing to spend on a transaction. The transaction must have enough gas to cover the computational resources needed to execute the code. All unused gas is refunded at the end of the transaction.
GAS PRICE: A term used in the Ethereum platform that refers to the price you are willing to pay for a transaction. Setting a higher gas price will make miners more incentivized to prioritize and validate that particular transaction ahead of those set with a lower gas price. Gas prices are typically denominated in Gwei. For more information on the various ether denominations, see this documentation.
GEMINI DOLLAR (GUSD): The Gemini dollar is issued by Gemini Trust Company, LLC, a New York trust company. The U.S. dollar deposit balance is examined monthly by BPM, LLP, a registered public accounting firm, in order to verify the 1:1 peg. The Gemini dollar is a cryptographic token built on the Ethereum Network according to the ERC20 standard for tokens. The code of the Gemini dollar smart contracts has been audited by Trail of Bits, Inc., an information security research & development firm, whose report is publicly available
GENESIS BLOCK: The first block in a new blockchain.
GIGAHASHES/SEC: The amount of hashes possible every second, measured in billions of hashes
GOLEM (GNT): The Golem (Golem Network) platform is a marketplace for computing power. On the peer-to-peer network, unused computational resources can be rented out to users wishing to perform memory-intensive tasks, who pay the provider in Golem’s cryptocurrency. The idea is that an individual possessing, say, a high-end gaming rig can profit from allowing another to use its GPU/CPU cycles for anything from CGI rendering to training neural nets. Resources that once would have sat idle can now be monetized on the decentralized network.
GPU: Acronym for “graphics processing unit” is a specialised processor originally designed for the high graphics requirements of computer games. These are also used to mine cryptocurrency since they outperform CPUs.
HALVING: Reduction of minable reward every so many blocks. For Bitcoin the reward is halved after the first 210,000 blocks are mined and then every 210,000 thereafter.
HARD FORK: When a blockchain splits into two ledgers creating a new digital currency.
HARD CAP: The maximum amount that an ICO will be raising. If an ICO reaches its hard cap, they will stop collecting any more funds.
HARDWARE SECURITY MODULES: Or HSM. It is a device that secures data such as digital private keys in a very secure fashion.
HASH: The act of performing a hash function on the output data. This is used for confirming coin transactions.
HASH RATE: Measurement of performance for the mining rig is expressed in hashes per second
HODL: A type of passive investment strategy where you hold an investment for a long period of time, regardless of market volatility. The term was made famous by a typo made in a bitcoin forum. Also referred to as ‘buy and hold’ or ‘hold on for dear life’.
HOLO (HOT): Cryptocurrency Holo is a digital token of the Holochain platform, which allows the storage and distribution of data. The Holo network is a part of the Holochain ecosystem, which consists of nodes and users that can place their data (applications) on the network and get paid for it. The Holochain platform is based on the Ethereum block, so its HOT tokens are based on the ERC-20 protocol.
HUOBI TOKEN (HT): Huobi is a Chinese digital currency trading platform and exchange based in Beijing. Huobi was founded in September 2013. It is one of the largest digital currency exchanges in China. In August 2017 Huobi along with OKCoin invested 1 billion yuan ($150 million) of idle client funds into “wealth-management products”. In September 2017, It was reported that Huobi and OKCoin would be stopping Yuan-to-bitcoin trading. In November 2017, According to reports, Huobi launched three tokens: 0x (ZRX), Kyber (KNT), and Airswap (AST) on their global trading platform, huobi.pro. In October 2017, the exchange fell victim to the authorities ‘ policy against digital assets and was forced to close. The exchange opened again under the Huobi brand.pro. Domain Huobi.pro was registered on March 19, 2017. Exchange has its own token – Token Huobi (HT).
HYBRID PoS/PoW: Allows for both Proof of Stake and Proof of Work as consensus distribution algorithms on the network. In this method, a balance between miners and voters (holders) may be achieved, creating a system of community-based governance by both insiders (holders) and outsiders (miners).
ICO: Initial Coin Offering, or a token sale. This is the process or event in which funds are raised for a new cryptocurrency venture and contributors receive tokens in return.
ICON (ICX): ICON is a blockchain technology company based in South Korea, is attempting to bridge this gap by creating a decentralized network of blockchain communities that can freely interact with one another without sacrificing their autonomy. The resulting structure has an emphasis on real world applications other digital currencies lack. The token will be called ICX and it will be one of many that can be transacted in the system. If the reader is interested in the detailed complexities of the ecosystem, they’ll have to consult the whitepaper themselves. This analysis is meant to assess the potential profitability of investing in this token and ICO. Token holders who actively participate in the ICON system will be able to earn more tokens as a reward for more participation. The token will be necessary to perform various types of transactions within the network, like most of the token schemes that will work. The work required to actually earn more tokens may be more than most traders would be willing to invest, so we then must calculate on the actual base demand for the tokens.
INPUT: The input side of a given Bitcoin transaction is the side where the Bitcoin payment is coming from. Usually, this is expressed with a Bitcoin address.
IOST (IOST): IOSToken (IOST) is a cryptocurrency that revolves around the Internet of Services, and aims to provide a solid infrastructure for new online service providers. The team behind the IOST project has focused on delivering a high TPS rate, and creating a highly scalable, private and secure blockchain. They also like to claim that the IOS (Internet of Service) blockchain is a secure, scalable blockchain that actually works.
IOTA (MIOTA): Refers to the cryptocurrency and the name of an open source distributed ledger founded in 2015 that does not use blockchain (it uses a new distributed ledger called the Tangle). It offers features such as zero fees, scalability, fast and secure transactions, and so on. It is focused on the Internet of Things.
KIMOTO GRAVITY WELL: A mining difficulty readjustment algorithm, which was created in 2013 for Megacoin, an altcoin. The well allows difficulty readjustment to occur every block, instead of every 2016 blocks for Bitcoin. This was done as a response to concern about multi pool mining schemes.
KOMODO (KMD): Komodo (KMD) is a cryptocurrency project that focuses on providing anonymity through zero knowledge proofs and security through a novel Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) protocol. The Komodo Platform was forked from Zcash by the SuperNET team and it is the evolution of the BitcoinDark cryptocurrency. Komodo ICO start date: 2016-10-15.
KYC: Acronym for ‘Know Your Customer’, used to describe a series of laws and regulations which require businesses to know the identity of their customers.
LIGHTNING NETWORK:A low latency, off chain P2P system for making micropayments of cryptocurrencies. It offers features such as instant payments, scalability, low cost and cross-chain functionality. Participants do not have to make individual transactions public on the blockchain and security is enforced by smart contracts. For more information, visit the official website or the whitepaper.
LISK (LSK): Lisk (LSK) is a blockchain application platform, established in early 2016 by Max Kordek and Oliver Beddows. Based on its own Blockchain network and token LSK, Lisk will enable developers to create, distribute and manage decentralized Blockchain applications by deploying their own sidechain linked to the Lisk network, including a custom token. Thanks to the flexibility of sidechains, developers can implement and customize their Blockchain applications entirely.
LITECOIN (LTC): A type of cryptocurrency that was created by former Google employee Charlie Lee in 2011. It offers features such as Segregated Witness and the Lightning Network which allows for faster processing at lower cost.
MAIDSAFECOIN (MAID): MaidSafeCoin (MAID) is a cryptocurrency that is focused on autonomous data. MaidSafeCoin (MAID) is a proxy token that was released during MaidSafe’s crowd sale and will be swapped for Safecoin on a 1:1 basis when Safecoin is released. MaidSafeCoin is a token that is listed on the Bitcoin blockchain. MAID coins can be purchased on a number of exchanges, such as Poloniex, HitBTC, Cryptopia, OpenLedger. Maidsafe proposes a secure mechanism for network access control that is bundled with the safe Browser. As MaidSafe moves along the roadmap and releases new features for the SAFE network, we see an overall increase in the value of the MaidSafeCoin. When the Safecoins become operational on the SAFE network, it’s possible you might see an increased demand for the MaidSafeCoin. MaidSafeCoin was created by David Irwin more than four years ago. The first verified transaction involving this cryptocurrency was made on April 22, 2014. Today, MaidSafeCoin is one of the largest cryptocurrencies in terms of market capitalization. Although MaidSafeCoin supports its currency, The company is still mainly working on creating its own blockchain that will help find other currency applications.
MAKER (MKR): Cryptocurrency and a governance token. Cryptocurrency Maker (MKR) is a digital token created on the Ethereum platform of the project Maker, the main purpose of which is to create a line of decentralized digital assets that would be tied to the value of real instruments such as currency, gold, etc. On the basis of the platform, it is planned to create an exchange where it would be possible to carry out margin trading of tokens on the ERC20 Protocol.
MARKET CAPITALIZATION (MARKET CAP): The market value of a company, market or sector at a point in time commonly used to rank relative size. In equities, it refers to the total market value of a company’s outstanding shares. In cryptocurrency investing, it refers to either price multiplied by the circulating supply (i.e. free float market cap) or price multiplied by the total supply (i.e. fully diluted market cap).
MAXIMUM SUPPLY: An approximation of the maximum number of coins or tokens that will ever exist for a cryptocurrency or crypto asset. See also: circulating supply and total supply.
MINERS: Term used to describe the devices or the people that own the devices that validate bitcoin transactions. They get rewarded for the computing power consumed during mining with the bitcoins created in the process.
MINING: The process through which transactions are verified and added to the blockchain and new bitcoins are created.
MITHRIL (MITH): Mithril is a decentralized social media platform on the Ethereum Blockchain. Mithril will integrate into new and existing social media networks to reward content creators for contributions to the network – we call this Social Mining. Mithril (MITH) will leverage blockchain technology to ensure that transactions are secure and safe for all participants. This technology revolves around decentralized data storage that can record transactions between parties in a efficient, trustless, and immutable manner. MITH will launch as a utility token on Lit, an innovative social media platform that addresses the needs of this current generation of users. This younger generation of social media users seeks a platform that addresses both their needs as early crypto adopters as well as their evolving needs in social media. Features such as instant messaging, story feeds, and discovery of new friends are all built into Lit for launch. Lit will enable Social Mining of MITH to reward users for contributing their personal content to the network, and provide the Mithril Vault for its users to store, use, and exchange MITH for BTC and ETH. Lit will seamlessly integrate into into major social networks to help users more easily monetize their personal content.
MONERO (XMR): Open-source cryptocurrency created in April 2014 that focuses on fungibility and decentralization. Monero uses an obfuscated public ledger, meaning anybody can broadcast or send transactions, but no outside observer can tell the source, amount or destination. Monero uses a Proof of Work mechanism to issue new coins and incentivize miners to secure the network and validate transactions. The privacy afforded by Monero has attracted illicit use by people interested in evading law enforcement during events such as the WannaCry Ransomware Attack, or on the dark web buying illegal substances. This has been acknowledged by Monero, and not entirely disavowed. Despite this, Monero is actively encouraged to those seeking financial privacy, since payments and account balances remain entirely hidden, which is not the standard for most cryptocurrencies. The egalitarian mining process of Monero has made it an alternative choice for websites and applications looking for substitute sources of income. In 2018, Change.org led the way by implementing a Monero miner on their screensaver to raise funds for the Change.org Foundation. While some organizations use Monero miners to cover hosting costs as an alternative to paywalls or advertisements, malicious hackers have also used it via covertly embedding mining code into websites and apps seeking profit for themselves.
MT. GOX: Mt. Gox was a bitcoin exchange based in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan. Launched in July 2010, by 2013 and into 2014 it was handling over 70% of all bitcoin transactions worldwide, as the largest bitcoin intermediary and the world’s leading bitcoin exchange.
In February 2014, Mt. Gox suspended trading, closed its website and exchange service, and filed for bankruptcy protection from creditors. In April 2014, the company began liquidation proceedings. Mt. Gox announced that approximately 850,000 bitcoins belonging to customers and the company were missing and likely stolen, an amount valued at more than $450 million at the time. Although 200,000 bitcoins have since been “found”, the reason(s) for the disappearance—theft, fraud, mismanagement, or a combination of these—were initially unclear.
New evidence presented in April 2015 by Tokyo security company WizSec led them to conclude that “most or all of the missing bitcoins were stolen straight out of the Mt. Gox hot wallet over time, beginning in late 2011.
By May 2016, creditors of Mt. Gox had claimed they lost $2.4 trillion when Mt. Gox went bankrupt, which they asked be paid to them.The Japanese trustee overseeing the bankruptcy said that only $91 million in assets had been tracked down to distribute to claimants, despite Mt. Gox having asserted in the weeks before it went bankrupt that it had more than $500 million in assets. The trustee’s interim legal and accounting costs through that date, to be paid ultimately by creditors, were $5.5 million.
In March 2018, the trustee Kobayashi said that enough BTC has been sold to cover the claims of creditors
MULTISIG: Or multisignature refers to having more than one signature to approve a transaction. This form of security is beneficial for a company receiving money into their BTC wallet. If a company wants to keep it so that one employee doesn’t have sole access to a transaction, multisig allows for a transaction to be verified by two separate employees before it’s complete.
NANO (NANO): Nano is a cryptocurrency that was formerly called Raiblocks and focuses on providing payment solutions. Nano counts with instant transactions, zero transaction fees and a high degree of scalability. Nano coin counts with instant transactions, zero transaction fees and a high degree of scalability.
Nano is a cryptocurrency that was formerly called Raiblocks and focuses on providing payment solutions. Nano counts with instant transactions, zero transaction fees and a high degree of scalability. Nano coin counts with instant transactions, zero transaction fees and a high degree of scalability.
NEM (XEM): Refers to the cryptocurrency and the name of a platform for management of a variety of assets, including currencies, supply chains, ownership records, etc. It offers additional features to blockchain technology such as multi-signature accounts, encrypted messaging, etc.
NEO (NEO): Refers to the cryptocurrency and the name of a China’s first open source blockchain that was founded in 2014 by Da Hongfei. It is similar to Ethereum in its ability to execute smart contracts or dApps but has some technical differences such as coding language compatibility.
NODES: Connection points for the transmission of data.
OFF-LEDGER CURRENCY: A currency minted off-ledger and used on-ledger. An example of this would be using distributed ledgers to manage a national currency.
ON-LEDGER CURRENCY: A currency minted on-ledger and used on-ledger. An example of this would be the cryptocurrency, Bitcoin.
OMISEGO (OMG): OmiseGO is an open payment platform and decentralised exchange issued on Ethereum, an open-source public blockchain. The stated objective is to provide better financial services for everyone, including both people who use traditional banking services and people in developing countries and locales which lack traditional banking infrastructure. Its token OMG was the first Ethereum project to exceed USD $1 billion valuation.
ONTOLOGY (ONT): Ontology blockchain framework supports public blockchain systems and is able to customize different public blockchains for different applications. Ontology supports collaboration amongst chain networks with its various protocol groups. Ontology will constantly provide common modules on the underlying infrastructure for different kinds of distributed scenarios, such as those for the distributed digital identity framework or distributed data exchange protocol. Based on specific scenario requirements, Ontology will continue to develop new common modules. Ontology uses a dual token (ONT and ONG) model. At first, ONT is a NEP-5 token and does not release ONG. After the launch of Ontology’s MainNet, users will be able to exchange NEP-5 ONT for ONT on the Ontology MainNet, which will start to release ONG periodically.
ORACLES: A data feed, usually a third party service, that provides information for use in smart contracts.
P2P: Another way of saying Peer-to-Peer. Peer-to-peer has become a very large focus of blockchain as one of the biggest selling points is decentralization. Nearly every interaction on the blockchain can be fulfilled P2P, or without a centralized variable like a store, bank or notary.
PAXOS STANDARD TOKEN (PAX): Paxos is the first Blockchain-powered Trust, building products to simplify settlement and eliminate risk. Paxos is a Trust company, regulated by the New York State Department of Financial Services, with deep experience as an intermediary between fiat and digital assets. Paxos Standard is the first digital asset issued by a financial institution, and is fully collateralized by USD.
PERMISSIONED LEDGER: A distributed ledger that requires permission in order to be accessed. The ledger is maintained only by a limited number of parties. This is the kind of blockchain technology that large corporations, such as banks, are more likely to use because of data privacy needs.
POPULOUS (PPT): Populous (PPT) is a cryptocurrency and an invoice marketplace built using the latest in blockchain technology. On Populous, invoices are traded through auctions using smart contracts. The flow of funds within the platform was made possible by the use of customizable stable currency tokens called Pokens. Pokens are tied 1: 1 to the national currencies of the country participating in this transaction. For example: £ 8 GBP represented by 8 Pokens (GBP). All financial transactions between buyers and sellers accounts will be executed through Pokens.
POS: Proof of stake has been considered the greener alternative to PoW. Where PoW requires the prover to perform a certain amount of computational work, a proof of stake system requires the prover to show ownership of a certain amount of money, or stake.
POW: Proof of work was a concept originally designed to sieve spam emails and prevent DDOS attacks. A Proof of Work is essentially a datum that is very costly to produce in terms of time and resources, but can be very simply verified by another party. The proof of work for Bitcoin is referred to as a “nonce,” or number used only once.
PRE-SALE: A sale that takes place before an ICO is made available to the general public to participate.
PRIVATE KEYS: A form of cryptography that allows users to access their cryptocurrency and is an essential part of its security.
PUBLIC ADDRESS: A public address is the cryptographic hash of a public key. They act as email addresses that can be published anywhere, unlike private keys.
PUBLIC LEDGER: A distributed ledger that is open to everyone on the internet. Bitcoin’s blockchain is a public ledger.
PUMP AND DUMP SCHEME: A scheme in which the development team (or short-term traders) hypes up a project without fundamental basis in order to pump up the price of the tokens temporarily and then sells their holdings immediately after launch to earn a profit.
PUNDI X (NPXS): Pundi X is the world’s largest decentralized offline cryptocurrency sales network. The project provides the first comprehensive solution for the sale of cryptocurrencies online and offline, including: decentralized sales network, multicurrency wallet (for solid and cryptocurrencies), decentralized trading platform, generalizovannoe ICO platform, off-line (entry point set in the physical stores).
QASH (QASH): Qash is a cryptocurrency and stands for quoine liquid token. Qash is provided by Quoine corporation, a legal entity established under Japanese and Singapore law. Quoine is a fintech company providing trading, exchange, and next-generation financial services powered by blockchain technology with offices in Japan, Singapore, Vietnam and the Philippines.
QR CODE: These are a lot like the rectangular bar codes you’ll find on just about anything you buy, except QR codes are square in shape and can hold more information than bar codes.
QTUM (QTUM): Qtum (read Quantum) is a Chinese hybrid platform that connects the existing blockchain with a virtual machine, such as Ethereum. In the Qtum blockchain, there is an internal token – Qtum coin. It is a platform that enables developers to build applications and smart contracts on the current blockchain technology. Focusing on building a platform that helps companies create smart contracts on blockchain, Qtum is a toolkit in the first place. Designed to be both robust and modular, the platform can create small contracts to be used on most major blockchain.
REVAIN (R): Revain is a feedback platform, mostly based on the blockchain technology that doesnt allow to change or delete reviews and its authors get a reward for creating it. The service is developed in close collaboration with hi-tech IBM AI systems.- Stable tokenRVN token, inner platform currency.- Review’s immutabilityDue to blockchain technology and Ethereum platform especially, all the reviews can’t be deleted or changed.- RewardsUsers get a reward in the tokens for every review. The only requirement – the review should pass filtration stage.- Automatic filtrationMachine learning and neural networks for detecting all types of unwarranted texts: spam, flood, abuse, etc.- Unbiased systemDAO and smart-contracts will prevent any kinds of fake reviews.- Transparency- Feedback from consumers of user’s productImprove your product and business processes. ICO start date: 2017-08-21.
RIPPLE (XRP): Refers to the cryptocurrency and the name of an open source payment platform where the cryptocurrency (Ripple or XRP) can be transferred. The vision for the platform is to enable real-time global payments anywhere around the world. The Ripple payment protocol was built by OpenCoin which was founded in 2012.
SATOSHI: The smallest unit of bitcoin possible. There are 100 million satoshis in a single bitcoin.
SATOSHI NAKAMOTO: The mysterious creator of Bitcoin. Known to possess over a million bitcoins, his/her/their/its identity is still unknown.
SCAMCOIN: Coins created as get rich quick schemes by their developers. These coins usually have certain properties, such as being clones of an existing coin and being pre-mined.
SCRYPT: Type of cryptographic algorithm and is used by Litecoin. Compared to SHA256, this is quicker as it does not use up as much processing time.
SEGEREGATED WITNESS (SEGWIT): The process where the block size limit on a blockchain is increased by removing digital signature data and moving it to the end of a transaction to free up capacity. Transactions are essentially split (or ‘segregated’), into two segments: the original data segment and the signature (or ‘witness’) segment.
SHA-256: Cryptographic algorithm used by cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. However, it uses a lot of computing power and processing time, forcing miners to form mining pools to capture gains.
SIACOIN (SC): Siacoin is a decentralized file storage system that incentivizes people to rent out their unused hard disk drive space to earn Siacoin, or SC. It does this by using a blockchain technology whose design is similar to Bitcoin with a few unique technical tweaks that allow it to be used efficiently for file storage. The main difference is the “file contract”, a special kind of blockchain smart contract that provides a way for hosts (people offering storage space for rent) to get paid for proving that they have stored a file and made it available for a user over a period of time. To protect user privacy, all data is encrypted before being uploaded to the network, and only the user can decrypt them again. Other technologies like payment channels further optimize the Siacoin network for file storage. Combining this with redundancy and error-correction, codes yields a self-bootstrapping ecosystem where the cheapest available excess storage capacity is automatically used preferentially by the network.
SIGNATURE: Mathematical operation that lets someone prove their sole ownership over their wallet, coin, data or on. An example is how a Bitcoin wallet may have a public address, but only a private key can verify with the whole network that a signature matches and a transaction is valid. These are only known to the owner and are basically mathematically impossible to uncover.
SMART CONTRACTS: Software that runs on blockchain technology and can automatically enforce the terms of an agreement. A “smart bond,” for example, would automatically make interest payments to investors
SOFT CAP: Generally refers to the minimum amount that an initial coin offering (ICO) needs to raise. If the ICO is unable to raise that amount, it may be cancelled and the collected funds returned to participants.
SOFT FORK: It differs from a hard fork in that only previously valid transactions are made invalid. Since old nodes recognize the new blocks as valid, a soft fork is essentially backward-compatible. This type of fork requires most miners upgrading in order to enforce, while a hard fork requires all nodes to agree on the new version.
SOLIDITY: Ethereum’s programming language for developing smart contracts.
STEEM (STEEM): Steem is a blockchain-based rewards platform for publishers to monetize content and grow communities. Users can earn rewards by posting, commenting and curating content. There is a STEEM coin which is a cryptocurrency of the platform. Steem cryptocurrency (STEEM) is the unit of account on the Steem blockchain. Besides, there exist other units such as Steem Power and Steem Dollar. Both of them derive there value from Steem. Steem Dollars and Steem Power can be earned by by posting and curating articles on Steemit. Steemit is a social network that runs on top of Steem. The approach of Steemit can be seen as an implementation of the popular social network Reddit on the blockchain. SMTs are tokens that can be launched on the Steem blockchain just as ERC20 tokens on Ethereum.
STELLAR (XRM): Stellar is an open-source protocol for value exchange founded in early 2014 by Jed McCaleb (creator of Ripple and eDonkey) and Joyce Kim, supported by a nonprofit, the Stellar Development Foundation. Being a completely decentralized consensus platform, Stellar, in simple words, is an open-source protocol for exchanging money, which connects people, payment systems, and banks, allowing to not only buy and sell currencies in a foreign exchange, but also to convert currencies seamlessly during transactions. The network consists of peers that run independently of each other, meaning that Stellar does not depend on any single entity, any of which, by the way, can run a Stellar server. The idea is to have as many independent servers in the network as possible, so that it will run successfully even in case some of servers fail. The consensus process happens at a regular interval of every 2 to 4 seconds. Like any traditional ledger, Stellar’s one records all the balances and transactions of every single account on the network. A complete copy of the global Stellar ledger is hosted on each server running correspondent software. Stellar network’s native asset is Lumen. The standard token contributes to the ability to move money around the world and to conduct transactions between different currencies quickly and securely. Stellar boasts quite a starry board’s and advisory board’s crew, which include Keith Rabois, Patrick Collison, Matt Mullenweg, Greg Stein, Joi Ito, Sam Altman, Naval Ravikant and others.
STRATIS (STRAT): Stratis coin is a flexible, powerful blockchain development platform designed for the needs of real-world financial services businesses. It also provides benefits to other types of organizations that want to leverage blockchain technologies. This is a turnkey solution that enables developers and businesses to develop, test, and deploy blockchain-based applications without having to operate their own network infrastructure. The Stratis platform has been designed to meet the needs of businesses and organizations of all sizes and is particularly suitable for those who run their services in a Windows/Microsoft environment.
Stratis coin is a flexible, powerful blockchain development platform designed for the needs of real-world financial services businesses. It also provides benefits to other types of organizations that want to leverage blockchain technologies. This is a turnkey solution that enables developers and businesses to develop, test, and deploy blockchain-based applications without having to operate their own network infrastructure. The Stratis platform has been designed to meet the needs of businesses and organizations of all sizes and is particularly suitable for those who run their services in a Windows/Microsoft environment.
TESTNET: A test blockchain used by developers to prevent expending assets on the main chain.
TETHER (USDT): Tether is a controversial cryptocurrency token claimed by its creators to be backed by one dollar for each token issued, though Tether Limited has not issued a promised audit of their currency reserves.
TEZOS (XTZ): Tezos’ is a blockchain project that aims to offer “the world’s first ‘self-amending’ cryptocurrency”. Its 2017 initial coin offering raised $232 million, the largest for such an offering to that date. The project experienced a management controversy over the use of raised funds that was described by a July 2018 Wired cover story as “the crypto world’s biggest scandal” after its resolution. Tezos launched in beta on June 30th 2018.
TOKEN: Crypto tokens enable the creation of open, decentralized networks, and provides a way to incentivize participants in the network (with both network growth and token appreciation). This innovation, made popular with the introduction of Ethereum, has given rise to a wave of token networks (e.g. prediction markets, content creation networks, etc.) and token pre-sales, or ICOs.
TRANSACTION BLOCK: A collection of transactions gathered into a block that can then be hashed and added to the blockchain.
TRANSACTION FEE: All cryptocurrency transactions involve a small transaction fee. These transaction fees add up to account for the block reward that a miner receives when he successfully processes a block.
TRON (TRX): Tron (TRX) is a blockchain-based decentralized protocol that aims to construct a worldwide free content entertainment system with the blockchain and distributed storage technology. The protocol allows each user to freely publish, store and own data, and in the decentralized autonomous form, decides the distribution, subscription and push of contents and enables content creators by releasing, circulating and dealing with digital assets, thus forming a decentralized content entertainment ecosystem. TRON’s team members are followers of Sir Tim Berners-Lee, who are convinced that protocol, from the moment of its invention, is an asset for human beings, rather than a profit-making tool for small groups. Hence, TRON has established the Singapore-based Tron Foundation, a nonprofit organization that mainly engages in operating the TRON network in the principles of openness, fairness and transparency and supporting TRON’s development team. The Tron Foundation is set up with the approval of the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority (ACRA) and under supervision and regulation of the Company Law of Singapore. It is run by the Board of Trustees or the Board of Governors formed by eligible trustees for independent management and operation, which is also independent from the government’s administration.
TRUEUSD (TUSD): TrueUSD, part of the TrustToken asset tokenization platform, is a blockchain-based stablecoin that, although similar to USDT, seems to be a direct response to the problems observed in Tether throughout recent times. In the TrueUSD system, U.S Dollars are held in the bank accounts of multiple trust companies that have signed escrow agreements, rather than in a bank account controlled by a single company. According to TrueUSD, the contents of said bank accounts are published every day and are subject to monthly audits. This method of storing USD ensures that the user can have greater trust in TrueUSD as the collateralized holdings are not centralized in any one entity, but instead distributed throughout many fiduciary partners. TrueUSD is regulated, exchange-independent stablecoin backed 1-for-1 with US Dollars. TrueUSD offers token-holders full collateral, regular attestations of escrowed balances, and legal protections against misappropriation of underlying USD.
TURING COMPLETE: Turing complete refers to the ability of a machine to perform calculations that any other programmable computer is capable of. An example of this is the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).
UNPERMISSIONED LEDGERS: Unpermissioned ledgers such as Bitcoin have no single owner — indeed, they cannot be owned. The purpose of an unpermissioned ledger is to allow anyone to contribute data to the ledger and for everyone in possession of the ledger to have identical copies.
USD COIN (USDC): USD Coin (USDC) is a US dollar-backed stablecoin. With USDC, you can move dollars anywhere in the world in minutes instead of days. Cheaply and securely. The tokens bring stability to crypto, opening up possibilities for trading, hedging risk, lending and beyond.
VANITY ADDRESS: A bitcoin address which contains a desired word/pattern or sequence of numbers. Kind of like a customised number plate. (Example: 1JAMES2K4rWaduCmCds36ox2VXdeBE7LNd)
VECHAIN (VET): VeChain, with its cryptocurrency VET, is a blockchain platform that focuses on financial services, supply chain management, and smart contracts. VET was the first blockchain company to create a disaster recovery plan and the first to partner with the Chinese government. The VeChain token launched in 2015. VeChain first tried to apply an open blockchain network to the internet of things in late 2016. It partnered with companies doing business in luxury goods, agriculture, logistics, and food/drugs, as well as state administration. VeChain established offices in Shanghai, Singapore, Paris, and Tokyo. VeChain was the first blockchain company to make a deal with the Chinese government, as it became the blockchain technology partner of the regional government of Guiyang. It also started developing technology solutions for China’s tobacco monopoly through partnership with China’s National Research Consulting Center (NRCC).
VERGE (XVG): Verge (XVG) Coin is a privacy focused cryptocurrency token that utilizes the TOR network to anonymize IP addresses on its public leager. Verge uses multiple anonymity-centric networks such as TOR and I2P. The IP addresses of the users are fully obfuscated and transactions are completely untraceable. It is listed on major exchanges such as Binance, Bittrex, Cryptopia or Changelly.
Verge (XVG) Coin is a privacy focused cryptocurrency token that utilizes the TOR network to anonymize IP addresses on its public leager. Verge uses multiple anonymity-centric networks such as TOR and I2P. The IP addresses of the users are fully obfuscated and transactions are completely untraceable. It is listed on major exchanges such as Binance, Bittrex, Cryptopia or Changelly.
VIRGIN BITCOIN: A bitcoin that has been received by a miner as a block reward, and thus has never been “spent” before.
VOLATILITY: The measurement of price movements over time for a traded financial asset.”
WALLET: A store of digital assets such as cryptocurrencies, analogous to a digital bank account. Crypto wallets can be divided into two categories: hosted wallets (e.g. wallets store on exchanges or third-party servers) and cold wallets (e.g. hardware wallets such as the Ledger Nano S, paper wallets and desktop wallets).
WALLET ADDRESS: Public portion of the two encrypted keys necessary for a holder to accept or verify a transaction.
WAVES (WAVES): Waves Platform is a cryptocurrency project launched by the Russian entrepreneur Alexander Ivanov in 2016. The blockchain platform launch campaign raised $16 million, becoming one of the largest in terms of funds raised through crowdfunding. In June 2017, the Waves platform reported the integration of the dollar payment gateway into the Lite Client, which allows users of the wallet to replenish the account in US dollars.
WHALE: Someone who possesses a Majority percentage of a cryptocurrency.
WHITELIST: A list of registered and approved participants that are given exclusive access to contribute to an ICO or a pre-sale.
WHITEPAPER: An informational document that generally informs readers on the philosophy, objectives and technology of a project or initiative. Whitepapers are often provided before the launch of a new coin or token.
XRP: XRP is an independent digital asset, native to the Ripple Consensus Ledger. Ripple is a real-time gross settlement system (RTGS), currency exchange and remittance network by Ripple. Also called the Ripple Transaction Protocol (RTXP) or Ripple protocol, it is built upon a distributed open source Internet protocol, consensus ledger and native currency (XRP). Released in 2012, Ripple purports to enable “secure, instant and nearly free global financial transactions of any size with no chargebacks.” It supports tokens representing fiat currency, cryptocurrency, commodity or any other unit of value such as frequent flier miles or mobile minutes. At its core, Ripple is based around a shared, public database or ledger, which uses a consensus process that allows for payments, exchanges and remittance in a distributed process.
ZCASH (ZEC): Zcash is a cryptocurrency aimed at using cryptography to provide enhanced privacy for its users compared to other cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. The Zerocoin protocol was improved and transformed into the Zerocash system, which was then developed into the Zcash cryptocurrency in 2016. Development of protocol improvements and the reference implementation is led by the Zerocoin Electric Coin Company, colloquially referred to as Zcash Company. The founder and CEO of Zcash Company is Zooko Wilcox-O’Hearn. Its founding team includes cryptographer Matthew D. Green from Johns Hopkins University. Roger Ver was one of Zcash Company’s initial investors.
ZEROCOIN: A project aimed at implementing true anonymity into the Bitcoin network.
ZERO CONFIRMATION TRANSACTION: The processing of data for cryptocurrency transactions can take anywhere from half a minute upward to over ten minutes in some cases. Though this is necessary in order to validate transactions and guards against fraudulent activity such as double spending – the waiting period can be inconvenient for those involved in the transactions. As a result, some exchanges and businesses that deal with digital currency are offering “zero confirmation” transactions, which are almost immediately verified without waiting for the mining process to confirm the data block.
ZILLIQA (ZIL): Cryptocurrency markets are becoming more accessible and analysis is increasing by the day. Gone will be the days when investors jump into crypto to become overnight millionaires and it is the reason some ICOs are doing well while others have been losing value since January. Zilliqa platform is among the few projects that seem to be gaining favor from different facets in the financial services sector. The ICO which launched in late 2017 has so far had a good Q1 in comparison to its peer coins. One would attribute this to the nature of its protocol; Zilliqa aims at maximizing scalability within the blockchain tech.